Electric bus, a solution to air pollution

Electric bus adoption in public transport urban fleet is growing all over the world, and has its roots inChina.
More than 99 per cent of electric buses are deployed in Chinese cities,. However, in 2017 in Europe 1,250 vehicles included in the ‘electric bus’ definition were ordered: around 10 percent of city bus market. And in 2018 5% of city buses registered in Europe were electric buses. Figures are growing fast and, according to UITP, are expected to reach, in Europe, 20 per cent of city buses market share in 2020.
Also, India (70,000 buses sold in 2017) is a market with big potential, when even a small part of the orders will be electric. And United States? Market penetration was at about 0.5% of the total U.S. public transit bus market at the end of 2017, but in the same time 9% of all transit agencies either had electric buses in service or on order.
According to Bloomberg New Energy Finance, at the end of 2017 there were 3 million city buses in operation worldwide; of these, 385,000 belong to the category of electric bus. The incidence on the global fleet is therefore 13 per cent.
However, this figure is misleading as, almost all of the vehicles operate in China. Therefore, it would be more correct to say that in China the share of electric buses on the circulating city buses is already 17%. Elsewhere, we are still dealing with decimals.
Let us have a look at how other nations are adopting electric buses and learn from them, how we can implement them in Bangladesh.
China paving the way
The plans for electrification of Chinese public transport are quite ambitious. Beijing aims at the goal of 10,000 by 2020, starting from 1,320 last year.
In September 2018, Yutong Bus declared it has achieved a total sales volume of 90,000 new energy buses in France, UK, Bulgaria, Iceland, Chile, and China Macau among others (Yutong’s annual sales volume, including every kind of bus and coach, exceeds 70,000 units).
The United Kingdom’s growing demands
As widely known, London is the leader of the transition to electric buses in the UK, and also in Europe. BYD and ADL delivered in November 2018 a 36 vehicles electric bus order in the capital city. What is also very interesting is that the companies, together with the strategic partner SSE, transformed the historic and land-locked RATP Dev Shepherd’s Bush garage in West London into an advanced, smart electric bus operating centre, that is expected to become the company’s first zero emission bus garage in London. According to the plans, by 2037 all buses in London (about 8,000) will be zero-emission.
The first European plant just for electric bus, courtesy of Irizar
Irizar, on its side, inaugurated on 11th of May 2018 the first European plant totally dedicated to electromobility. 18,000 square meters of gross floor area on 4 hectares plot, situated in the town of Aduna, Gipuzkoa is the place where Irizar is building, and will build, all its electric vehicles and parts. Irizar is the first manufacturer of buses to boast a plant focused on emobility and, furthermore, to build the whole electric bus, components included, in house, thanks to the different companies of the group. The inauguration of Aduna plant has also been the occasion to present to press and customers from all over the world the first truck manufacturer by Irizar: the ie truck. Electric, needless to say.
Ten electric buses by Irizar have been purchased by Voyages Emile Weber group in Luxemburg. Six of them have just been put into service, the others will arrive by the end of 2018. Still in the same year 2018, Irizar e-mobility signed a contract with RDT 13 that includes the delivery and the maintenance of 15 units of Irizarie tram electric bus, belonging to the last generation of electric buses realized by the Basque manufacturer. The vehicles will be deployed on the roads of Aix en Provence.
India, an interesting electric bus market
With over 70,000 buses above 6 tonne sold last year, the Indian bus market represents a significant portion of the 430,000 buses above 6 tonne sold globally. If only a small percentage of these were to be electric, it could easily become the second largest market behind China. The consulting company Interact Analysis have been tracking publicly confirmed orders for city electric buses totalling 932 units as well as publicly stated intentions to order a total of 1243 units since the start of 2018 to October of the same year. Excluding China, this accounts for more than 24.9% of the global orders we’re tracking.
An overview of electric buses
An electric bus is a bus that is powered by electricity.Electric buses can store the electricity on board, or can be fed continuously from an external source. Buses storing electricity are majorly battery electric buses, in which the electric motor obtains energy from an on-board battery, although examples of other storage modes do exist, such as the gyrobus which uses flywheel energy storage. In the second case, electricity is supplied by contact with outside power sources. For example, overhead wires, as in the trolleybus, or with non-contact conductors on the ground, as seen in the Online Electric Vehicle.This article mostly deals with buses storing the electricity on board.
As with other electric vehicles, climate control and extremely cold weather will weaken the performance of electric buses. In addition, terrain may pose a challenge to the adoption of electric vehicles that carry stored energy compared to trolleybuses, which draw power from overhead lines.

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